24/48 shift calendar 2022

streetcar desire named language grin analysis blessing curse crude nigeria impact oil acquisition second hester prynne howl ginsberg allen excerpt The list includes Prof. A.A Agbaje, Dr. R.E. 2. Suicide attacks are therefore a unique type of terrorism amongst others because a perpetrator himself becomes a human-missile which can make the last second adjustments to maximize the damage, when he decides to commit this assault. Therefore, bringing to our understanding that Boko Haram sect is pre-occupied with carrying out various degree of attacks on civilians, usually used by the powerless against powerful; International terrorism interludes terrorists attacking a foreign target other than within own country or abroad (Rourke 2008:316). Intimidate, put in fear, force, coerce, or induce any government, body, institution, the general public or any segment thereof, to do or abstain from doing any act or to adopt a particular standpoint, or to act according to certain principles; or Future researchers should however coin out modalities in order to see through the eyes of insurgents and terrorists. (viii) The movement for oneness and Jihad in West Africa (MUJAO) has provided training camps and conducted joint operations with Boko Haram militants in Mali. In this context, the term terror can be used for the events that cause severe damage, and anxiety in people. Literature survey by the National Research Council (NRC) attempted what it considers a working definition of terrorism in the social and behavioral sciences, consisting of the following elements: (i ) Illegal use or threatened use of force or violence. The last category, anomie suicide, is the result of the lack of regulation of the members of the community. But it becomes complicated if the Boko Haram sect is still a domestic terrorist group despites it seeming connection with other international sect such as Hamas and Alqueda. In lieu, I adore the role played by my aunties such as- Mrs. Elizabeth Iwuala, Mrs Blessing Ejike, Mrs Ada Ndimele, Miss Chidinma Agharanya, inter alias. 1.8 Limitations of the Study This means that September 11, 2011 attack was an international terrorism while one of the attacks by the Boko Haram sect such as the police stations attacks is a domestic terrorism. To my parents, Mr. and Mrs. James Ndimele Nwankpa; my siblings- Mary, Gift and Joseph Ndimele. In lieu, I pay homage to the innocent citizens and members of the Armed Forces, whose lives were cut short in the process to sustain a unified Nigeria, may their souls rest in peace. The desires and pleasures of the persons are regulated by the community. For instance, when several hooligans commit a series of crimes intimidating and threatening other people during the night on the street, it may be called street terror or when somebody or some gang members drive their vehicles very dangerously while they are under the influence of alcohol or drugs and kill many people by causing several severe accidents, it may be defined as traffic terror. Many of the groups initial weapons were considered to have been captured during raids of security forces and through smuggling from the neighboring countries using networks across the porous borders through its limited links with other terrorist organizations outside the country, the group was able to achieve more sophistication in its attack capabilities that included the use of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) especially after the security forces crackdown on the sect in 2009. The predominant threat and security challenges in the area are emendating from un-abating attacks on Nigerian citizens, individuals, public and governmental installations, kidnapping and destruction of properties. Neither the government nor the security forces reacted to this threat. Where there is widespread perception and evidences to suggest that the citizens are not getting a good deal from the state, they could resort to violence. It is therefore, hoped that this study will be relevant and of benefits to the students and scholars of political science, history, intelligent and security studies and the society at large. 4. Taylor (1988) differentiates them by distinguishing the words terror and terrorism. He is nicknamed "Darul Tawheed" (Specialist in orthodox doctrine of the uniqueness and oneness of Allah) and is fondly called imam or leader by his followers. (ii) With an intent to coerce societies or governments by inducing fear in their populations. Many of these conditions pre-date Boko Haram, and Boko Harams existence and agenda are tangential to these problems. Its initial base in Yobe State was called Afghanistan, and the sects adherents were referred to as Talibans by the locals. Consequently, on July 16, 2009, the sect made good on the threat by attacking police stations in Maiduguri. The group had re-emerged in a highly decentralized structure with the unifying force remaining its ideology. Does it have factors fueling its existence More so, Boko Haram insurgence has become the major problem facing Nigerians in the recent time. In the same vein, it will also makw use of historical research method. Since September 11, 2001, multiple attacks on the twin towers of the World Trade Centre and pentagon in the United States of America, has made terrorist laden groups or caucus such as the Boko Haram, to become a household of discussion in the world today. In lieu, this is justified due to the level of academic programme through which this study is being carried out.

Economic environment quality of living of citizens, extent of inequality (influenced by corruption and economic policies), organized and transnational crime, economic exploitation or/and widespread corruption resulting in gross inequality; widespread poverty and economic discrimination; What are the measures used to stem low the negative impact of Boko Haram considering its socio-economic underpinning, 1. 4.4.2 Chronic poverty In essence, an in-depth and robust investigation that can positively influence policies geared towards deterring unwholesome socio-economic manifestations in Nigeria as a whole is expedient.

Cleavert went on to explain that: It is true, as is often repeated that mans terrorist is another an extreme example of an essential contested concept and its preachers finds to polarize at extent that renders it extremely difficult to return to normal politics (Cleavert, 2002:303, Cited in Ogochukwu, 2013). Any promotion, sponsorship of, contribution to, command, aid, incitement, encouragement, attempt, threat, conspiracy, organization or procurement of any person, with the intent to commit any act referred to in paragraph (a) (i), (ii) and (iii) [section 46 of the Act dealing with interpretations. The study offers a review of salient literature on terrorism from the global view as well as Boko Haram as worshippers. Crenshaw further noted that the choice of time, place, and victim is meant to shock, frighten, excite, or outrage. What have gone wrong with the strategy employed? I salute the academic prowess of erudite scholars in the Department, who are fount of knowledge and have always provided me with the pathway to succeed. The unity of Nigeria is seriously threatened by the activities of Boko Haram fundamentalist sect and therefore, considered to be a major potential terrorist threat affecting the great and strategic territorial shores of Nigeria mostly on the part of her socio-economic potency being questioned. There are numerous scholars like Sigmund Freud, Karl Menninger, Alfred Adler, Karen Honey and Emile Durkheim who perceives suicide attacks as criminal behaviours (Grollman, 1971). b. For these reasons, the Islamic tie with this sect will be examined for the sake of clarity in order to guide our mind throughout the course of this research. This individual became the chief financier of the sect until he was killed during the 2009 onslaught on the sect by security forces. Internal security has been significantly undercut by violent activities of civilian-in-arms against the Nigerian State. The Nigerian State since 2009 has been under the throes of the deadly terrorist operations of the Islamic sect formally known as JamaatuAhlis Sunna Liddaawati Wal-Jihad. No nation is free from crisis.

2.3.5 Political Justification The Nigerian Police (NP) investigated the group following reports that the sect was arming itself. Failing states that lacked capacity to promote the human security of citizens; thereby unable to ensure national cohesion or integration, patriotism and loyalty and therefore citizens may be recruited domestically by disenchanted groups (ethnic, religious, political and economic); Some of them used social factors to explain why human beings commit suicide, whereas some others provided psychological aspects. Durkheim (1951) identifies this as altruistic suicide. Additionally, altruistic and fatalistic types of suicides have kindred ties with each other because of too much involvement in social integration and moral regulation respectively. They vowed to take revenge for what happened to their members if the government failed to apologize. 1.7 Research Methodology Have the security agencies handled the situation well? 5. 1.2 Statement of the Problem - It only takes five minutes

Babatunde and the entire congregation of Assemblies of God Church, Bodija 1; I say thank you all for your prayers and counsel, for it geared me towards becoming a better person. 4. Ansarus goals of eradicating western influence in West Africa and establishing Sharia are similar to Boko Harams. According to Schmid (2011), Terrorism is a doctrine about the presumed effectiveness of a special form or tactic of fear-generating, coercive political violence and, on the other hand, to a conspiratorial practice of calculated, demonstrative, direct violent action without legal or moral restraints, targeting mainly civilians and non-combatants, performed for its propagandistic and psychological effects on various audiences and conflict parties. He argues that terrorism uses criminals, sycophants, sadists, or hooligans to achieve different political ends. It gives a general description of how Nigeria as a state has been continually affected by the havoc wreaked by Boko Haram sect. She noted that terrorism is not spontaneous, or does it involve mass participation. The sect drew heavily from the multitudes of Muslim graduates who had completed studies but were unable to secure employment. 3.3 Views of Counter Terrorism Strategy To compliment the foregoing, the follow argues that: Terrorism is furthermore strategies that are not restricted to any particular ideology (smlter and Beltes 2001, Cited in Ogochukwu, 2013). 7. The scope covers the extent of socio-economic effects orchestrated by the Boko Haram sect with close attention to the North-Eastern region of Nigeria since it is said to be the stronghold of the sect.

The findings revealed that the strategies of Nigerian government failed because she failed to address adequately the socio-economic factors that equipped the sect such as unemployment, poverty, corruption/bad leadership, poor economy structure. It was a great man who said Whatever I have achieved, is because I have stood on the shoulders of great men. The Boko Haram sect usually offers food, shelter, security and alternative succor to these homeless children and youths to get their support. Schbley (2003) thinks that the definition of terrorism must be free from prejudiced approaches. This perspective is deeply rooted in the staunch defense of Sunni Islam based on strict adherence to the Qur'an and authentic Sunna (practices) of the Prophet Muhammad (Al-Matroudi, I. Abdul Hakim, 2006). I can say, I was in the midst of great minds. In this perspective, terrorism is defined as a psychological warfare aimed at impacting the political process through violence. The method used in the gathering of the data collection is mainly secondary source of data collection. This is centered on different literature that is directly related to the Boko Haram menace in Nigeria. When Yusuf was killed, Shekau married one of his four wives and adopted his children, a move that was considered an attempt to preserve the cohesion of Boko Haram. Several structural factors associated with presence or absence of terrorism has been identified by Crenshaw 2011 includes the following: 1. This simply means method of data collection; that is, referring to the various means through which appropriate information needed for this study was sourced, for the purpose of this work. There is evidence that some disgruntled ex-service men and sympathetic security forces officials also joined this group to inflict more damage on the state (Zenn, 2012). Succinctly, I doff my hat in utmost humility to appreciate your relentless support. In some cases, though, the financial support from these institutions could have been in aid of Islamic propagation and not for terrorism. Russia revolutionaries and anarchist in French, Spain, Italy and German established terrorism as a central mechanism in attempt to over throw the established regimes, most of which were autocratic in the submission of Lain Mclean; terrorism as a pejorative term also applies to the deeds of government of sovereign states. Almost all terrorist acts are aimed at frightening a target population and ultimately they pursue to gain some kinds of political ends. Sandler and Enders (2002) considered terrorism as premeditated use, or threat of extra normal violence to obtain a political objective through intimidation or fear directed at large audience by weaker side in an asymmetrical conflict.

With strict reliance to the words of Marcel Proust, let us be grateful to the people who make us happy; they are the charming gardener who make our souls blossom. 4. The reason is that, the 1999 Constitution guarantees these fundamental human rights. To explore into the origin of Boko Haram sect

Prima facie, Boko Harams motivations appeared to be religious; however considering factors as dismal socio-economic conditions that prevail in the Northern region, the epicenter of the sect, a religious explanation alone is reductive.

5.4 Recommendations. Although Shekau does not communicate directly with the sects foot soldiers, he maintains strict control through a few select cell leaders. Thus, it is important to have insight into scholars views on the subject areas thereby laying the foundations for a robust research. There is no part of the country that is under foreign rule or dominance. This violence coincided with the run-up to the presidential elections. Each of these dimensions has greatly affected the nations stability, and can be traced to the ethnic militia armies, ethnic and religious conflicts, poverty, terrorism, armed robbery, corruption, economic sabotage, and environmental degradation (Ilufoye, 2009). 4.3 The Effect on Political Development I also acknowledge all lecturers of the Department of Political Science for the knowledge instilled in me during the course of my study. This derives from their bid to make people in the North East geo-political zone of Nigeria to embrace their view on Islamic Nigeria code. 4.4.1 Unemployment and High Population in Northern Nigeria It gives a preview and conclusion of the research work.

Typically, small number of extremists who otherwise lack the capacity to challenge those in power resort to terrorism. Weak state capacity for effective conflict-management (prevention, containment, transformation, resolution, etc) that prolong or entrench inter-group conflicts; Nigeria as a nation-state is under a severe internal socio-economic and security threat. Altruistic type of suicide occurs in the opposite conditions of egoistic suicide standing for the negative end of integration continuum. Those engaging in acts of terrorism in Nigeria on the basis of these issues are rather pursuing selfish agenda which is not anchored on fighting for freedom as posited by (Gandu, 2009). 2.3.4 Religious Justification Although Boko Haram clashed with MNLA, the group has not been a significant target of Boko Harams attacks. Most of the recruits used by the Boko Haram and suicide bombers are drawn from the former Almajiris (poor street children, from poor Muslim parentage, who had been denied formal Western education but had been exploited while growing up by rich Islamic clerics who use them as street beggars to ask for alms on the streets of Northern Nigeria). Jobless, angry young men who form a massive talent pool from which Boko Haram can draw, while broader northern society somewhat justifiably views the federal government and security services trying to eradicate Boko Haram with contempt. (iii) Ansaru (Jamaatu Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis Sudan) splintered off from Boko Haram due to ideological differences in January 2012. The global threat of terrorism respect no boundaries or borders. Taking cognizance to the above assertion, it is very noteworthy in the scheme of politics or as far as the plethora of roles bothering around government is concerned that the primary or most germane function which every government seek to accentuate as even enshrined in the Nigeria 1999 constitution, is the protection of lives and properties of its citizens. What is the nature of this threat? Chapter Four: Socio-economic effects of Boko Haram in Nigeria. 3.

The research further exposed that the strategy used in curtailing militancy in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria failed to tackle terrorism in the North Eastern part of the country which can be regarded as the nerve of the sect because of the international affiliation and its religious connotation to terrorism. This section is well immersed with pre existing views and perceptions of various scholars and academicians as regards their contributions to the subject matter. I hesitate to single out anyone, lest I slight others, but at the same time I would be remiss if I did not acknowledge at least some of those with whom I worked most closely. Schbley (2003) sees terrorism as violent behaviors committed against the symbolic civilians or their belongings. - High royalties for the sales Are there lessons to be leant in the ways other countries handle such threat? The justification of this scope and period is also because the activities of Boko Haram rose to its peak and the examining of efforts made by the government of President Goodluck Jonathan at combating Boko Harams violent operations. This can be attested to by the mass movement of people living in the Northern part of the country most especially Maiduguri, which is the capital of Borno State. Sequel to this, national security threat is a major issue for the government of today and it has prompted huge allocation of the national budget to security. This is hinged to the fact that Boko Haram is still an on-going threat and as such going to the Northern part of Nigeria remains a big risk. I acknowledge my lecturer and supervisor, Dr. J.O. 2.2 The Concept of Terrorism The ethnic driven terrorism is also traceable to economic reason; this is because every ethnic group in Nigeria is in the struggle to achieve control of state resources. These groups have orchestrated several bombing that have killed millions of innocent citizens of the country and also caused the destruction of both private and public properties worth of billions of naira. Despite these efforts, the level of insecurity in the country is still high. These have included radicalized religious and regional youth groups, prominent among which are the Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND), OOdua Peoples Congress (OPC), the Arewa Peoples Congress (APC), Bakassi Boys, Egbesu Boys, the Movement for the Actualisation of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB), and more recently, Boko Haram, Ansaru, Kala-Kato, and Ombatse, among others (Onuoha, 2012: 134-151).

For the purpose of this work, Marxism, Relative-Dependency and Frustration-Aggression theory will be adopted to give the necessary insight into the emergence of Boko Haram in Nigeria. Hence, he defines terrorism as producing dread and intimidation through planned, intentional, organized slaughter, turmoil, and frightening of innocent people to attain some kinds of political ends. (i) Al-Shabaab and Boko Haram share similar ideologies and in 2011, a Boko Haram member, Mamman Nur reportedly received trainings from Al-Shabaab in Somalia before launching the attack against the United Nations headquarters in Abuja on August 26, 2013. Violence is now endemic in human relations. 3.4 Nigerian Government Counter-Terrorism Strategies It also involves the use of violence against a non-combatant targets. The 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria guarantees freedom of religion and worship and no individual or section of the country have been denied these fundamental human rights, whether Christians, Muslims, idol worshippers, atheists or any other religion. Indeed, the better the issue is understood the more efficacious would be policy aimed at combating not just Boko Haram terrorism but also other like-minded individuals or groups that might arise in the future due to the deterioration of the socio-economic conditions of Nigerians. According to Reich 1998, Cited in Ogochukwu, 2013 ), as a strategy of resistance to the modern state, terrorism emerged some half century after the French revolution, when the term originated as a description of the state regime of terror. - Altruistic Suicide Terrorism. This chapter sets out the circumstances that specify the Boko Haram crisis in Nigeria, research problems, research questions, objectives of the study and its significance. White (2002) indicates that Laqueurs definition does not completely explain the political issues of terrorism, but it provides the practitioners a way to progress outside the problematic argument of a definition. However, Boko Haram has never targeted directly any of these nations. Perhaps, the only consensus among analysts with regard to terrorism is that there is no universally acceptable definition of the concept.

He presented social aspects that lead some individuals to engage in suicidal acts such as anomie, egoism, altruism and fatalism in the society (Maris, 1981; Dunman, 2003). 4.4 Root Causes of Boko Haram Terrorism: A Socio-Economic Angle Its execution depends on concealment, surprise, stealth, conspiracy, and deception. Another basic limitation rests on the collection and availability of data especially with regards to Boko Haram attacks. This incident provoked the entire Boko Haram who demanded an apology from the government. The distinction between domestic and international terrorism refers not to where the terrorist act takes place but rather to the origin of the individuals or groups responsible for it.

5. Boko Harams clashes with security forces came to light on July 12, 2009, when they were conveying their dead members for burial at a local grave yard. He was born in Shekau village in Yobe State and is believed to be in his 30s. He addresses it as a shifting behavior by frightening via political or criminal violence.

Tags: No tags

24/48 shift calendar 2022Add a Comment